Field & Morse (1985 in Holloway & Wheeler, 1996) suggest that the interview must be completed within one hour. Actually, the interview depends on the participants. Researchers must hold a contract with the participants, so that they can plan their activities on that day without being disturbed by the interview. Generally, participants wish to be interviewed just one hour. At participants elderly, suffer physical weakness, or pain may need to rest after 20 or 30 minutes.
Participants in the form of children also can not concentrate for a long time. Researchers must use their own judgment, to follow the wishes of participants, and the use of time according to the needs of research topics. Generally, the length of the interview no more than three hours. If more than three hours, the concentration will not be obtained even if the interview was conducted by researchers seasoned. If the maximum time that not all of the data obtained, the interview can be done once or more. Several times a short interview will be more effective than only one time with his long time.
Types of Questions and Related Items
When asking a question, the interviewer uses a variety of communication techniques and how to ask. Patton (1990 in Holloway & Wheeler, 1996) made a list of the kinds of questions, such as the question of experience ("Can you tell me about your experience of treating patients with diabetes?"), Feelings ("How did you feel when the first patient you care die?"), and knowledge ("What services are available for this patient group?").
Spradley (1979 in Holloway & Wheeler, 1996) distinguishes grand-tour questions and mini-tour. Question grand-tour is broader while the mini-tour more specific. Examples grand-tour question: Can you describe the specificity of the ward? What do you do if a patient asks about his condition? While examples of mini-tour question: Can you describe what happens when a colleague questioned your decision?
Question in qualitative research as far as possible not be direct but still based on the area being studied. Researchers expressed a clear question and adjust the level of understanding of the participants. Ambiguous questions also produce ambiguous results. Double questions are better avoided; such questions are not appropriate, such as: how many colleagues you have, and what their ideas about this?
According to Devers & Frankel (2000) several factors influence the degree of structure or type of instrumentation used in qualitative research. The first factor is the goal of research is conducted. When the research is exploratory or testing to find or refine theories and concepts, the right to be considered is the protocol that is very open ends (open-ended). The second factor is the extent of previously existing knowledge about a subject, for example, a concept that has been around and used widely in the world, the extent of its application in Indonesia. Third, the available resources, especially when the subject and the number and complexity of cases. Finally, an agreement with the authorities and donors. The instrument takes the time to analyze it certainly needs to be considered by funders.
Investigation and Determination
During the interview, the researcher can use prompts or probing questions. This helps reduce anxiety both the researchers and participants. Purpose of probes are tracking to decipher the meaning or reason. Seidman (1991 Holloway & Wheeler, 1996) prefer the term to explore and do not like the term probe because it emphasizes the position of strength of the interviewer and is the name for instruments used in the medical investigation. Exploratory questions may be used, such as what an enjoyable experience you? How do you feel about it? Can you tell me more about it? Interesting, why would you do it?
The interviewer can follow certain points or certain words that expressed by the participants. Participants will be smooth when asked to tell of a story, to reconstruct their experiences, like today, incidents, or their feelings about the disease.
Non-verbal prompts may be more useful. How to stand researcher, eye contact and leaning forward will encourage reflection. In fact adopted skills in counseling that has been owned by the nurse will make it easier to do this.
The use of the prompt or probe is that the interview went well and provide a sense of comfort both on the researchers nor the participants without departing from the study. This can not be separated from the interviewer's own abilities.
A good interviewer should have communication skills that qualified. These skills include listening skills, construct words (paraphrasing), probing, and summarize (Byrne, 2001).
Many health care professionals interested in the views or ideas of their colleagues. There are advantages and disadvantages in interviewing friends. Language and the same norms can be an advantage or a problem. Be an advantage because the concept is more easily understood by researchers who are included in the participant's culture. Although the chances of misinterpretation can be reduced, misunderstanding may lead to assumptions derived from the values and beliefs of a general nature.
Becomes a problem because sometimes, interviewers tend not to ask fellow colleagues thought that is considered as general question, even though this data was the main data. To eliminate such instances, researchers need to be overcome by behaving or putting themselves into those who belong to other cultures or a naive observer and not from the same background with the participants. Thus, the idea that has not been covered or ideas that may not be asked can be obtained by asking participants about their meaning and to clarify their thinking.
In many situations interviews with friends, researchers and participants are on equal footing and researchers know well and not anonymous. This is an advantage for the participants.
I think enough the explanation about the best time to do interview. Hopefully, this article is useful. Thanks