Humans are the main instrument in qualitative research. Because everything still has no definite formula. Examples such problems, research procedures, data to be collected, even all the expected results can not be determined exactly and clearly before.
According to Nasution (1996: 55-56) human as the main instrument of research with the consideration that the researcher as a research instrument according to qualitative research characteristics, among others:
- Researchers as a tool has to be sensitive and can interact to any stimulation from the environment that must be anticipated meaningful or not for her/his research, there is no other instrument that can react and interact with so many factors in changing circumstances.
- Every situation is an overall, researchers as a tool able to adapt to all aspects of the situation and be able to collect a variety of data all at once.
- Situations that involve human interaction, can not be understood solely situation. To understand it must feel it, into it, and doing appreciation.
- Researcher as instrument can quickly analyze data obtained either by way of interpreting and giving direction hypotheses and observations.
- Only human beings as instruments that can draw conclusions based on data collected at a time and immediately used as feedback to obtain the confirmation, alteration, repair or rejection.
- Human or researchers as an instrument for collecting research data, then the response strange, deviant actually paid attention to enhance the level of trust and understanding of the aspects studied.
Based on these considerations, suggests that the problems are the focus of qualitative research can not be determined clearly and definitely before. Qualitative research instruments are required to be able to determine the problem as the focus of the study, after plunging to the ground in line with the ongoing research. Instruments demanded clarification pursuit, the pursuit of the meaning behind that appears, look for the phenomenon is more essential than just the symptoms, and so on.
For that the presence of this reality, the instrument is able to meet these criteria are only human. In this study into a research instrument is the researcher himself, with the help of using the draft interviews and observation.