Teaching and Learning Process





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According to Ardiansyah (2011), Learning as a process activity, consisting of three phases. Phases of the learning process may include planning phase, implementation phase and evaluation phase.


Learning Process

Planning Phase
According to Wilkins (1987) that teaching must be planned in such as way that learning becomes an interesting, even at time entertaining process. Planning is the process of preparing something that will be implemented to achieve the intended purpose. Implementation of those plans can be arranged based on the needs of a particular term in accordance with the wishes of the planning maker. But, it is important if a plan can be implemented easily based on the target.

Some of the principles that should be applied in making teaching preparation: (a) Understand the purpose of education. (2) Mastering the teaching materials. (3) Understanding the theories of education than teaching theory. (4) Understanding the principles of teaching. (5) Understanding the teaching methods. (6) Understanding the learning theories. (7) Understand some important teaching models. (8) Understanding the principles of evaluation. (9) Understand the steps to create a lesson plan.

The steps to be prepared in learning are as follows:

Effective analysis and Learning Program analysis
To start the program learning activities, teachers need to make an effective day analysis for one semester. From the results of the analysis, it will be known effective days and off day each week or each month to facilitate arranging learning program for one semester. Effectively, making the basic analysis based on calendar and general education.

Making Annual Programs
Instructional programming during the school year aims the integrity and sustainability of the learning program or learning topics that will be implemented in two semesters maintained.

Semester Program
Semester of programming based on the results of the effective analysis and annual learning program.

Compiling Syllabus
Defined syllabus is the point of view, summary, overview points of the content or subject matter. Syllabus is a translation of competence standard, basic competencies to be achieved, and the points and a description of the material that students need to learn in order to achieve the standards of competence and basic competences. A syllabus in English language teaching must be explicit for the teacher and should be partially produced by the teacher. Kasbolah (1993) states that syllabus has to be continually reinterpreted and recreated by the teacher and learners. It becomes possible to implement it in the classroom.
e. Lesson Plans Learning
Making a syllabus can be arranged by teacher team, it would be better if it is arranged before teacher implementing the teaching learning; lesson plan is specific and conditional. It means that there is a difference condition between schools than the others such as the students’ condition and the facility of learning. So that a lesson plan must according to syllabus and to the process of learning activity in order to the process of learning can be reached.

Implementation Phase
According to Ardiansyah (2011), implementation phase is the implementation of the design drawn up plans for teachers. The nature of the implementation phase is the operational activities of learning itself. Here, the teacher doing the teaching-learning interactions through the application of various methods and teaching strategies, and the use of a set of media.
Learning process occurs in a set of activity that can be implemented in step. The learning activity was done in every step, so that it can be consistent sequence. Consistence learning is a learning procedure. According to Sadida (2011), there three of learning phases, Pre- activity, main-activity, and post-activity.

Evaluation Phase
Evaluation refers to all the means used in school formally mean sure the students’ performances. Djamarah (2006) gives evaluation definition as an action based on wise consideration to decide the value of something qualitatively.
The reason why the teacher gives a test is; (1) to know whether the learners are ready to learn. (2) To know the natural ability of the language. (3) To classify the learners based on their skills. (4) To mean sure the student’s achievement. (5) To diagnose the learners’ weaknesses. (5) To diagnose teacher’s weaknesses. In giving evaluation, it is necessary for the teacher to not only evaluate the students but also evaluate herself. The teacher should always consider the principles of giving evaluation. In evaluation the students of junior high school, the teacher should be consider that is not a must for the teacher to give an evaluation in a special time, but it can be done during the teaching-learning process every day.

Kinds of Evaluation
Based on Djamarah (2006), there are four kind of evaluation. Those are: (1) formative. A formative evaluation is an evaluation that is conducted in the end of every unit of subject material. This evaluation is aimed to know how for the specific instructional objective is reached; (2) Summative. This is conducted in the end of learning period for example in a term ;( 3) Co-curricular. This is evaluating the students’ activity out of class related to assignments or homework that is given by the teacher; and (4) Extra-curricular. This is to evaluate the activities of students out of class that do not relate to activity in the class when teaching happen.

Kinds of Evaluation Equipment
After Djamarah (2006) states about kinds of evaluation, then he explains about kind of evaluation equipment that there are two kinds of evaluation equipment. The first is test, test is conducted primarily as device to reinforce learning and motivate the students. Test is also used as means to assess the students’ performance. Based on the applying, test consists of three kinds; those are written, oral, performance, evaluation. The second is non-test, this test is to evaluate students’ affective such as attitude, interest, behavior, and characteristic. It can be done though interview, observation, case study, and rating scale. In rating scale, teacher only give check mark on the paper.

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