Teaching and Learning English





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According to Brown (2000), learning is acquiring or getting knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience, or instruction. While teaching is showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions, guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know of understand. Furthermore, successful teaching English well and they can develop their knowledge in learning English.
Hamalik (2001) states that definition of teaching is getting develop and develop. He formulates some definition of teaching activity that is supported by the experts’ theory. There are six definitions of teaching activity such as: (1) teaching is delivering knowledge to students, (2) teaching is be questing culture to young generation though school education institution, (3) teaching is an attempt to organize environment in order to create learning situation for students, (4) teaching is giving learning guide to students, (5) teaching is activity to prepare students in order to be a good citizen based on society demand, and (6) teaching is a process to help students face daily life in society.
In other word, teaching, and learning is interaction. It means that there is an instruction of transferring and receiving or take and give. A teacher transfers and students learn the materials. Both show the equivalence activity but different role.

Teaching and Learning

The Purpose of Learning
The realization of the education purpose must be related with learning purpose in the school which essential to the students as a subject of learning, so the goal of the learning must be raised and conditioned with the people points of view in social of personality. Bruner (1996) states that learning purpose at the school is to get the fact correlation with the fact that exist and commonly uses, it means that the teacher should not only give the lesson material but also discuss about problem of the students together and the realities grow in community. This effort is very useful, they are; training the students to be spread their social knowledge and the culture, training the students’ self-activity, and inspecting the social reality.
Tolman (1959) in Riyan (2012) states that a purpose is learning interpreted as a change of behavior that is a real manifestation from the goal in the subject or effort of the learning to research the purpose. Creating his/her, learning process of people is different, because of differences in motive between them. By motivation, we will know their pattern in learning to reach the purpose that is decided.
Generally, the purpose of learning is the final aim, which is reached by anyone who does activity. Therefore, this purpose becomes guide of their attitude. It means that everyone who does activity and always wants to reach their purpose.

The Learning Principle and the Types of Learning
There are three learning principles that relevant with the teaching and learning process. They are; (1) Contiguity. The Contiguity principles stated that the situation of stimulus must be dished together (contiguously) with hope response; (2) Repetition. The repetition principle says that stimulus situation with the response-needed repetition. So as a student can be better in study and longer memorizes; and (3) Reinforcement. Reinforcement principle based on this thing, that is an action is learned easier if the action is followed by the past action that is mastered by the student (Gagne & Brings, 1980).
According to Gagne (1965) in Brown (2001), there are eight types of learning; (1) Signal learning; the individual learns to make a general diffuse response to a signal.  (2) Stimulus-Response learning; the learner acquired is a precise response to a discriminated stimulus. (3) Chaining; what is acquires is a chain of two or more stimulus-response connections. Skinner has described the conditions for such learning. (4) Verbal Association; Verbal Association is the learning of chains (motor) that are verbal. (5) Multiple Discrimination; the individual learns to make a number of different identifying responses to many different stimuli, which may resemble each other in physical appearance to a greater or lesser degree. (6) Concept learning; the learner acquires the ability to make a common response to a class of stimuli even though the individual members of that class may differ widely from each other. So the learner is able to make a response that identifies an entire class of objects or events. (7) Principle learning; it is a chain of two or more concepts. It functions to organize behavior and experience. (8) Problem solving; it is a kid of learning that requires the internal events usually referred to as “thinking.”
To learn needs the internal situation that has been learned before. He factual information needed by children to study, to learn activity happened, the intelligence skills needed to learn must be re memorable. The intelligence skills must be learned before. At last, the study needs strategy to learn activity and memorization. If the children have, an experience in learning it makes them able to learn strategy that they have. In other word, the students can learn independently. The other internal factors of learning are motivation and self-confident.

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