Motivation





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Motivation refers to a reason that underlies behavior (Guay, 2010) that is characterized by willingness and volition states that motivation involves a constellation of beliefs, perceptions, values, interests, and actions that are related each other. Motivation affects to the student achievement states in Person's Assesment. Motivation is the key of learning. It is different from one student to other students. McClelland (1985) studied the strength of power motivation and affiliation motivation that individuals exhibit within groups or organizations. 

Power motivation might be displayed in educational settings by students who are extremely competitive, who gain a sense of power by being recognized as the brightest student or as the student most likely to succeed. Affiliation motivation is exhibited in response to a desire for approval in social contexts, for example, in situations where a student receives praise for doing well from family or friends. Motivation is a significantly important factor for academic learning and achievement across childhood through adolescence (Elliot & Dweck, 2005). According to Uguroglu and Walberg (1979) motivation is an important contributor to student achievement. Finding the way to motivate a student to reach their full potential is very rewarding. More detail click e-how.

Motivation of the student is the most important factor that influences the student’s success or failure in learning the language (Higbee, 1996). In line the explanation before, Ames (1990) states that motivation to learning is dependent on long-term, quality attachment in learning and pledge to the process of learning. The form of student motivation can be the student willingness, need, desire and obligation to participate and be booming in the learning process (Bomia, 1997). It is served in figure 1.

Adopted from Bomia (1997) 
 
Motivation itself has been defined by psychologists in many ways such as first; Motivation is the phenomena involved in a person's drives and goal-seeking behavior. Second; it is also the tendencies to activity which commence with a persistent stimulus (drive) and end with an appropriate adjusted response. Third; motivation is the arousal, regulation and sustaining of a pattern of behavior. And the last; motivation is the internal state or condition that results in behavior directed towards a specific goal (Curzon, 1990).

There are some literature that in line with the explanation about motivation. Norton (2000) states that motivation is viewed as a dynamic, situated and social construct and (Dornyei, 2005; Gardner, 2000) closely related to learners’ identity construction. In line with the statement before, Yu-mei (2009) states that motivation is one of several important factors that may influence students’ English achievement. Learners’ motivation has been widely accepted as a key factor which influences the rate and success of second or foreign language learning (Ellis, 1994; McDonough, 1983). Motivation is an important reason for different achievement. Li & Pan (2009) give statements that motivation is a very important factor which determines the success or failure in second language learning because it can directly influence the frequency of using learning strategies, willpower of learning, goal setting, and the achievement in learning. 

Gardner and Lambert (1959) state that motivation is the combination of effort and desire to get or achieve the goal of learning the language, based on their theory, motivation is divided become two kinds, namely instrumental and integrative motivation. According to Jehdo (2009) these types of motivation show the goals of learners in language learning and are widely accepted and studied. The influence of this motivation is served in figure below.

Adopted from Gardner & Lambert (1959)

The classifications of human need are clearly defined by Maslow (1943) and McClelland (1985). According to Maslow (1943), the basic motivation is the need. He concludes that motivation is classified into the hierarchy. In the paper of Klonowski (2009) the needs are (for the purposes of understanding) constructed into a pyramid, with the most basic needs at the bottom, and most elevated at the top. The categories, from basic to elevated, are as follows:  physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self actualization. 

He classified into five steps based on the Maslow’s hierarchy. In line with the statement before one again about the theory of needs it serves as top-down so it becomes (1) Understanding and Knowledge, (2) Transcendence, (3) Need for self-actualization, including personal growth and fulfillment, (4) Esteem needs, including achievement, status, responsibility, and reputation, (5) Love and belonging needs, including family, affection, relationship, work group. (6) Safety and Security needs, covering long term survival and stabilities and (7) Biological and Psychological need includes basic life needs, food, drink, sex, sleep, and etc.

Adopted from Maslow’s Theory (1943)

Physiological needs. In here, the students who are motivated looking for satisfaction that ensures their physical survival. This group includes food, water, air, shelter, sex, and clothing. Most people have satisfied their physiological needs allowing them to concentrate on higher level needs. Physiological needs are dominant and are the biggest needs in their life. Safety needs. Once physiological needs are met one can concentrate on bringing safety and security to our lives. Safety and security needs include, order, stability, routine, familiarity, control over one’s life and environment, certainty and health. Social needs or love and belonging needs; these needs include love, affection, belonging and acceptance. People look for these needs in relationships with other people and are motivated for these needs by the love from their families. Esteem needs. All people have a need for stable, firmly based, usually high evaluation of themselves for self-respect or self-esteem and for the esteem of others. These needs may be classified into two subsidiary sets. These are, first, the desire for strength, achievement, and adequacy, mastery of competence, confidence, independence and freedom. Second, we have what we call the desire for reputation or prestige (defining it as respect from other people), status, fame, glory, dominance, importance, recognition, dignity or appreciation. Need for self-actualization. This level of hierarchy is concentrated on an individual being able to reach their full potential a human being. Once someone has satisfied the first four levels of needs then they have the ability to concentrate on functioning to their highest potential. But even if all these needs are satisfied, we may often still expect that a new discontent and restlessness will soon develop, unless the individual is doing what they are hoped for. Musicians must play music; artists must paint if they are to be at peace with themselves. What humans can be, they must be. They must be true to their own nature.

From the explanation above, there are many aspects that can support, encourage or influence the students’ motivation both to increase and to decrease the students’ ability to reach the goals of learning. In every person there is a big motivation that will be helping them to be successful in their life. So, if it concludes the first four levels of needs are what we call deficiency needs, because they come from things we are lacking. These needs can be met only by external sources, by the environment, people or things going on around us. Self-actualization is a growth need. This does not just address what we are lacking in our lives, but it gives us room to grow and develop as an individual.

This need is always intrinsically motivated, because we do it out of pure enjoyment and desire to grow. Maslow (1943) states that he does explain that self-actualization is rarely achieved, even as adults. But we as teachers must make sure our students have satisfied their deficiency needs in order to move on to their growth one. Intrinsic motivation will not occur until they are well fed, safe in their environment, and can love and respect the teachers and their classmates. From there on motivation will be a breeze. Simply, motivation is spirit from inside and outside the students that have great relation with their achievement.

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