Kinds of Motivation





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The kinds of motivation are defined clearly. According to Higbee (1996) there are three types of motivation namely, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and motivation to learn. He states that motivation plays important role in process of learning. According to Ryan & Deci (2000a) there are three types of motivation i.e. extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. In the extrinsic motivation students are doing activity in different action only to receive a reward or to avoid punishment from the teacher. Some examples of extrinsic motivation are educational gifts and grades whereas in intrinsic motivation, students participate in different activities only for enjoyment. Higbee (1996) states once again about motivation that is motivation to learn. It refers to the value and benefits of academic tasks to the learner regardless of whether or not the tasks were intrinsically interesting. He concludes that intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as the sources of motivation to learn. Different with Higbee (1996), Ryan and Deci (2000a) states once again in motivation, namely Amotivation. Amotivation is the state of lacking an intention to act.

Adopted from Deci and Ryan in Self-Determination Theory

Santrock (2007) and Harmer (1991) have the similar statement about motivation but both of them are classified motivation into intrinsic and extrinsic motivation only. Intrinsic motivation has to do with the factors that influence to the student from inside of themselves whereas the extrinsic motivation from outside the students such as reward. According to Dev (1997) student who is intrinsically motivated will not need any type of reward or incentive to instigate or complete a task. This type of student is more likely to complete the chosen task and eager by the challenging nature of an activity. Whereas, the student who are in extrinsic motivation doing in learning English purely for attaining a reward or for avoiding some punishment. In line with explanation before, Lepper (1988) give statements that intrinsic motivation for own sake for the enjoyment it provides, the learning it permits, or the feeling of accomplishment it evokes. Whereas his point of view about extrinsic motivation is extrinsic means to obtain some reward or avoid some punishment external to the activity itself such as grades, stickers or teacher approval. Deci & Ryan (1985) classified motivation based on the different goals that give rise to an action. They say that the basic distinction of motivation is intrinsic motivation which refers to do something only for enjoyment and extrinsic motivation which refers to do something for leading students to a separable outcome. =

Those theories which are mentioned above are about the some point of view about kinds of motivation. Motivation is divided become two and three kinds. Based on my opinion you can choose one of the theories if you want to give detail explanation. In giving explanation, you must consider that theory is in line with your opinion. Don’t let be your self become arrogant in it. Studying about motivation is very important thing in teaching and learning process. Students who have high motivation are easier to get best achievement.

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