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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

There are two kinds of motivation that will be explained here, those are Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. Intrinsic motivation is doing of an activity inherent satisfaction than for some separable consequence. Intrinsic motivation is motivation that is animated by personal enjoyment, interest, or pleasure. According to Ryan & Deci (2000b) “Intrinsic motivation energizes and sustains activities through the spontaneous satisfactions inherent in effective volitional action. It is manifest in behaviors such as play, exploration, and challenge seeking that people often do for external rewards”. It is the stimuli for the student achieve their goal of learning. Intrinsic motivation is divided into three parts (Kusuma in Lestari, 2012); need, knowledge of progress, and ideal. Vallerand and Bissonnette (1992) states that there are three types of intrinsic motivation: intrinsic motivation to know, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment, and intrinsic motivation to experience stimulationNeed is one of important thing in the student’s motivation. Student will do an activity if they are motivated. The motivated students increase their learning outcomes easily.

Knowledge of progress means that tool of learning process that used to increase learning outcomes. By knowing the result of the examination that they have done well student will get the big motivation in their life. They will response quickly and make a little change in their knowledge.

According to Kusuma in Lestari (2012) Ideal means that it is the goal of life. It is the stimuli for the student to increase their capability to make dream come true. Students who have the goal of life work hard to make it happen. Ideal is the important thing in learning process. Intrinsic motivation is influenced by some factors, psychology condition and facilities in the school as the examples. Psychology condition means that the student’s condition influences their motivation in learning, if the students get the best condition they feel better to do many things and they can make it happen but if they are in bad condition they feel wrong in everything. Whereas the school’s facility means, the bad schools’ condition makes the students are not motivated. They feel that they need every thing that can make their selves get big spirit.

Besides the intrinsic motivation, there is important type of motivation namely extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is a construct an activity which is done by the student in order to attain some separable outcome. Extrinsic motivation is different with intrinsic motivation; it is the external factor to the individual and unrelated to the task they are performing. Examples include money, good grades, and other rewards. Extrinsic motivation concentrates in doing an activity simply for the enjoyment of the activity itself, rather than its instrumental value. Now, we are realizing that people always do something to change as result of the relation with reinforcement. For instance, the student who does his homework only because he fears parental sanctions for not doing it is extrinsically motivated because he is doing the work in order to attain the separable outcome of avoiding sanctions. So if it concludes, extrinsic motivation can come from their parents, teachers, and friends, etc.

Deci & Ryan (1985) states that extrinsic motivation is divided become four types. In here it shows these types from the lowest until the highest levels of self determination; external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and integrated regulation. Deci and Ryan (1985) states that extrinsic motivation is easier to understand; it consists of desire for a tangible reward—a prize, a compliment, first chair, or the avoidance of an unpleasant situation, and so forth.

External regulation according to Deci and Ryan (2000) refers to an action that individuals pursue and that are determined by sources that are external to the individual, such as tangible benefits and costs. If learning the language is made for such an external incentive and this incentive is removed the activity of learning will halt. In line with the explanation before Deci and Ryan (2000) states that the second type of extrinsic motivation is Introjections regulation. It describes a type of internal regulation that is still quite controlling because people perform such actions with the feeling of pressure in order to avoid guilt or anxiety or to attain ego-enhancements or pride. For instance, ego involvement is one of the classic forms of introjections (Nicholls, 1984) where a person performs an act in order to enhance or maintain self-esteem and the feeling of worth. The third type of extrinsic motivation by Deci and Ryan (2000) is Identified regulation. It is describing the effort of the person which identifies with the personal importance of a behavior and has thus accepted its regulation as his or her own. The last type of extrinsic motivation is integrated regulation. Integration occurs when the person identify regulations have been fully assimilated to the self. This occurs through self-examination and bringing new regulations into congruence with one’s other values and needs. (Deci and Ryan, 2000).

As generally, there are many ways to improve extrinsic motivation that make students different each other, those are Grade, Reward, Competition, Test, Praise, Punishment, Ego Involvement (Sardiman, 2006). All of the ways that have been mentioned before usually can make the base from the teacher to reach the goal of teaching. For example, the researcher takes one way that is giving reward. Giving reward is very useful in teaching learning process. It can make the student more interested in learning English if they get reward from their teacher or their parents. The students feel more spirit follow the teaching learning process.
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