According to Stipek (1993) motivation to learn is important thing to student success. Motivation in here can be defined as the internal drive directing behavior towards some end. Because of motivation, we know that someone that motivated they work more harder and high intensity than someone who are not motivated. In this below it explains about the components about motivation to learn; curiosity, self-efficacy (self-concept, self-esteem, and self-regulations), attitude, need, competence, external motivators.
Curiosity is intrinsic motivation to learn, and thus continued learning is not dependent upon the teacher rewarding learning. Using asking and answering question to the student is more interesting to build the students’ curiosity. We always give them the fact about the topic.
Self –efficacy means the power of positive thinking. When the students are feeling not so good but they want to win something they believe that they can handle it. So they are effort more than as usual. According to Bandura (1997) states that self-efficacy means the importance of natural ability. He says that the goal of learning is not determined by the talent of the student and environment but it depends on the student’s ability to reflect, be proactive, be organized, and be self-regulating. So according to him, self-efficacy is determined by how the individual think, feel, behave, and motivate them. The self-efficacy is not depending on the stress. Self-efficacy depends not only on motivation but also on whether one already has a reservoir of knowledge and skills that will make achieving the goal possible. The basic premise of self-regulation is that the students take control of their own learning; the terms self-efficacy, self-concept, self-regulation, and self-control, as used in the literature on motivation, all refers to the various ways in which students: (1) analyze the task, the environment, and the resources required (including the needed time for learning); (2) adopt appropriate strategies; (3) understand their own tolerance and persistence levels; and (4) judge the tasks to be important (Bandura, 1997).
Self-esteem means the student’s emotional reaction to his or her own competence. Self-esteem or called by self-worth is affecting to the students’ learning. If the students feel great and have the big and positive about their competence it will help them to master the learning although they find many difficulties. Whereas Self-concept often is limited to whether individuals believe themselves to have talent, in the fact, self-concept is directly related to performance goals.
Attitude is illusive commodity. The three approaches to attitude change; “providing a persuasive message, modeling and reinforcing appropriate behavior and inducing dissonance between the cognitive, affective and behavioral components of the attitude” (Bandura, 1997). If a person is induced to perform an act that is contrary to that person’s own attitude, attitude change will result.
The next factor influence to the motivation to learn is need. We know the great hierarchy about the need is explained clearly by Maslow (1943). He says that there are five steps in motivation; Physiological (lower-level), Safety (lower-level), Love and belongings (higher needs), Esteem (higher need), Self-Actualization (higher need). In here, the lower level should be met first before the next steps.
Competence is an intrinsic motivation to learn about thing that related to self-efficacy. Learning a skill without an understanding of the process is to be lost. We know that some of the students’ success in subject is not enough. External support, respect, and encouragement are important for the students to achieve competence. The achievement of competence itself becomes the intrinsic motivating factor.
External motivators mean someone or anything that can help the student to learn the subject. Active participation in learning provides the stimulating environment; in here the teaching and learning process should be flexible and creative. It is hoping that students are not studying in the boring situation. The teacher should provide situation which is not under pressure. Another external factor is reinforcement. It means that critic and suggestion from the teacher to the students have to accomplish certain activities. Students need confidence building reinforcement such as praise and encouragement to guide them. Students can also provide their own self rewards for accomplishing goals they have set (Stipek, 1993). Stipek (1993) states that “External conditions that support these internal conditions include; provisions for relevancy, choice, control, challenge, responsibility, competence, personal connection, fun, and support from others in the form of caring, respect and guidance in skill development.”