D. P. Harris (1974:81) states “that either four or five components are recognized in analyses of speech process. They are: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension”. Here the writer will explain those components briefly so read carefully.
D. P. Haris states “pronunciation is including the segmental features vowels, consonants, stress, and intonation pattern” (TESL: 81). The statement above shows that the quality of speaking is look at from the ability in producing every word by using proper pronunciation. Speaking English must get more attention because if the English learners make mistakes in their pronunciations they will cause misunderstanding with the other speakers. So here, pronunciation is really important target to catch. “It was very essential that the learner’s pronunciation should be corrected before they are moving on to texts”. (Howatt 1984: 172).
In Learning a language (especially English), language learner must pay attention to the grammar; because grammar has important function in creating a language. A language consists of word and sentences and they arranged and combined by a rule called grammar. The explanation above is based on the following statement that, “Grammar is the rule that says how words are combined, arranged, and changed to show different meaning (Michael Swan: xxiii)”.
Based on the explanation above the researcher concludes that language cannot be escaped from grammar. In learning and teaching English, grammar gets serious attention both in writing and speaking. The English learner will get predicate master in English if he/she is able to apply the grammar well either in speaking or writing. In speaking, grammar also has important role. Here the quality of arranging words and sentences are decided by grammar understanding needed to make the speaking ability well. Grammar makes the speaking ability easier to be understood by the listeners.
“Vocabulary is a total number of words in language” Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary: (p.461). Besides mastering grammar the English learner must have the save of many vocabularies because the amount of vocabulary furthermore the learner influences the ability to produce in English sentence. Learners who have much vocabulary are easier to create a large English sentence. Vocabulary is needed before the students learn about how to speak language.
D. P. Haris states “Fluency is the ease and speed of the flow speech” TESL: (p. 81). The statement above has described that a good oral language is how fluent the speaker make out his words from his mouth. It cannot be denied that mastery in speaking will be predicted to some one who is able to speak fluently and supported by proper grammar and large vocabulary.
The last language component is comprehension. Comprehension has meaning the mind’s act power of understanding or exercise to improve one understands Oxford Learner’s Pocket Dictionary (2003:81). It means that understanding a subject that we are studying is very important, because we can be easy to learn it if we are able to catch or understand the point of the subject learnt. So comprehension has a great role in learning.