Definiton of Media in Learning





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Arsyad (2010) states that  The word "media" comes from the Latin which is the plural form of the word "Medium" which is literally the "middleman" or introductory message from the sender to the receiver of the message. According to Oemar (2010) "media is a human existence that may affect others who are not in constant contact with him." While the definition of instructional media by Hamidjojo (1998), namely "All forms of media are used by human intermediaries to convey or spread ideas, so ideas, or opinions, or ideas that could be presented or delivered to the recipient". Another opinion expressed by Sudjana and Rivai (2010) "the medium of instruction is a teaching aid in the teaching methodology component, as a learning environment that is set by the teacher". From the above theories can be concluded that the media is a tool of learning, a wide range of materials or components used in the teaching and learning activities of teachers (teacher) to learners (students) in order to facilitate learners in receiving the material.

Rusman (2009) reveal the role of the media in learning process can be placed as follows: (1) as a tool to clarify the learning materials when the teachers deliver lessons. In this case media used by teachers as a verbal explanation of variation the learning materials. (2) Tool to lift or raise questions for further investigation by the students in the process learning. Most teachers are not able to put the media as a source of student questions or stimulus. (3) Learning resources for students, meaning the media contain materials that should be learned by students either individually or in groups. In other resources, function of learning media by Levie and Lentz in Arsyad (2010), namely: (a) Functions that draw attention and directing attention to the students to concentrate on the content related to the meaning of the displayed visual or text accompanying the subject matter or subject that is one lesson that is not liked by them so that they do not pay attention. (b) Affective function can be seen from the enjoyment of students when learning (reading) a text with a picture. (c) Cognitive function was evident from the findings of the study revealed that the visual symbol facilitates the achievement of the aim of understanding and recall of information or messages contained in the image.(d) Compensatory function seen from the findings that visual media to help students who are weak in reading to organize information in the text and recall.

Based on some of the functions of learning media stated above, it can be concluded that the use of media in teaching and learning activities have a considerable effect on the sensory tools. To the understanding of the subject content, in a certain sense it can be argued that the use of media will be ensured a better understanding of the students. Students who learn through listening alone will be different levels of understanding and the long "memory" survived, compared with students who learn by seeing or listening at the same time and see. Media are also able to generate learning and bring students into the atmosphere of pleasure and joy, where there is involvement and mental emotional. Of course this affects the spirit of their learning and better living conditions for learning, which will lead to increase students' understanding of teaching materials.

Learning Media

Munandi (2013) states that function of learning of media of divided into 5 functions that are: (1) Function of Learning media as Learning Sources - Technically, media in learning has the functions as learning sources. In sentence "learning sources" this implicit mean the liveliness, namely as dealer, conveyor, link and others. Mudhoffir (1992) states that learning sources intrinsically represent the component of instructional system covering message, people, substance, appliance, technique, and environmental, which that matter can influence the result learn the student. Thereby, learning sources is as kinds of source from outside. According to Rohani (1997) states that learning sources is experience which a large basically, namely for the width of life including everything which can be experienced. (2) Semantic Function - Media ability in adding word (symbol verbal) which is the meaning or its intention is really comprehended by the students. Language consists of symbol and content. Basic of element from Ianguage is "word". Word or words is representing of symbol verbal. (3) Manipulative Function - Manipulative Function is relied on characteristic. According to commonly characteristic, media has 2 abilities namely solve the limit of space and time and solve the limit of the sensory. First, ability of learning media in solves the limit of space and time, that are: (a)  Media ability attends the object or event that difficult to attend in the real form. (b) Media ability makes the object or event confiscating long time become to shorten. (c)  Media ability attends to return the object or events which have been happened. Second, ability of learning media in solves the limit of the sensory that are: (a) Help the student in understanding difficult object because the objeck too little. (b) Help the student in undesrtanding object that moving too tardy or untimely. (c) Help the student in understanding object requiring voice clarity. (d) Help the student in understanding too complex object.

(4) Psychological Function it is divided become 6 sub topics, those are:
(a) Attention Function - Learning media can improve the student attention to items teach. Each and everyone have the cell of resistor nerve, namely special cell in functioning nerve system throw away a number of incoming sensation. With the existence of this resistor nerve all students can focused its attention at excitement assumed draw and throw away the other excitement. Thereby, correct learning media utilize is learning media capable to draw and focused the student attention. (b) Affective Function - Function Affective namely inspires the feeling, emotion, and steps the acceptance or student deduction to something. Each and everyone own the symptom of soul mind comprising quality of character and awareness. Remember that affective behavior with the cognitive behavior always closes. Dissociation of both only pressure difference correct Learning media utilize can improve the greeting or student acceptance to certain stimulus. The acceptance or greeting in the form of willingness. With the existence of learning media, is seen from the readiness of student to accept the lesson burden, and for the attention of its will be gone lesson followed. Something else from that acceptance is response appearance namely in the form of student participation in all study process unsalaried, this represent the student reaction to excitement accepted. (c) Cognitive Function - Student which learn with learning media will get and use the forms representation that deputized by the faced object, the object in the form of people, object, or occurrence / event. That object is attended in somebody passing response, idea or device. (d) Imaginative Function - Learning media can improve and develop the student imagination. Imagination is process of creation of object or event without exploiting of a data sensory. Imagine this include; cover the arousal or new creation object as plan for a period of/to coming, or earn also take the fantasy form predominated by the strength once by mind autistic. (e) Motivate Function - Motivation represents the art push the student to be impelled to conduct the learning activity so that study target can be reached. Thereby, motivate to represent the effort from outside party in this case is teacher to push, to activating and its student movement consciously to be involved actively in course of study. Teacher can motivate its student by intriguing to learn and by giving and generating expectation. Rasyad (2003) is mentioning the way of first by arousal and secondly expectancy. Arousal is an effort teacher to awaken the intrinsic motivation student. While secondly expectancy is a confidence which at once arise to fulfilling of an expectation pushing somebody conduct an activity. (f) Socio-Cultural Function - Media Function seen from socio-cultural namely overcomes the resistance socio-cultural usher the competitor of study communications.

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