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Audio-Lingual Method (ALM)

The definition of Audio-Lingual Method (ALM) is a method that use drill by concerning in repetition in the process. Zuhairini (1983) explain about the benefits of drill, those are: In a relatively short time, quickly gained the mastery and skill can be expected, students will have a ready knowledge , students  will instill in children learning habit a routine and discipline. (Zuhairini, 1983 : 107). Richards & Rogers said that language skills are taught in this order: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Forms of teaching and learning activities Audio Lingual Method is basically a conversation and exercises (drills) and exercise patterns (pattern practice). Conversation serves as a tool to put the key structures on the context and also illustrates a situation in which these structures are used by native speakers, so as well as the implementation of the cultural aspects of the target language. Repetition and memorization become the dominant activity in this method.

Audio-Lingual Method

Certain grammatical patterns in conversations selected to be a pattern of exercise activities. Learning activities based on the Audio Lingual Method are: repetition, inflection, replacement, restatement, completion, transposition, expansion, contraction, transformation, integration, rejoinders, and restoration. (Richards & Rodgers (1986; 51) in Ammashumam (2010). The Audio Lingual method represents a major step in language teaching methodology that is aimed at communicative competence in language learning, but in audio lingual method is not focus on teaching vocabulary. Students are built to practice the use of grammar spontaneously, the forms of language and patterns that they had never heard before. Selection method affects the effectiveness of the source language to language teaching target. A teacher should be able to determine the appropriate methods for their students. The first skills in audio lingual method is listening, that is  listening with full attention, understanding, or capture the contents of the message and understand the meaning of communication is conveyed by a speaker or a particular media because the learning of audio lingual method is emphasized speech and not writing.

With language learning based on the theory that learning a language is a matter of the formation of habits. Human beings have human behavior and the behavior is also influenced by three important elements, namely the stimulation, response and reinforcement. It is also used in teaching the Senior High school students.

Richards & Rodgers (1986; 51 in Prayogo, 1998:9) stated that there are some principles in learning Audio lingual method as follows: (a) Language is sound, not text. (b) Language is like what the native speaker says. (c) Each language is different. (d) Learning second language basically is a process of building mechanistic habit. (e) Learning language skill is more effective if the aspects of target language learnt by knowing the voice before its writing. (f) The meaning of foreign language which is produced by the native speaker can be learnt only in the context of language and culture. (g) Learning language ability is started by the process of: listening, speaking, reading, and writing.
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