There are many factors affecting students’ achievement in learning English that are: internal and external factors. It is supported by Suryabrata (1983) that states factors influencing students’ achievement are factors that come from students’ internal and external sides. Internal factors cover physiological and psychological condition while external factors include environmental and instrumental factors.
Internal factors are factors come from students’ achievement especially in English because this study discusses about English achievement. Internal factors include physiological and psychological condition. Physiological condition commonly very influence to the students’ English achievement. For example, physical condition, nutriment, five sense and body part completeness. Students in health and fresh condition will be easier to learn English so making their achievement in English is good while the students in tired, sleepy and sick condition will be more difficult to they learn. Five sense conditions also affect to English achievement of students. Good hearing sense help students sensitive in listening to English conversation. Good speaking senses help students’ pronounce and speak in English. Another internal factors affecting English achievement is psychological condition that consists of aptitude, interest, intelligence and motivation.
Aptitude is nature ability to get knowledge and skill, either general or special (Semiawan, 1987). Be said to be general aptitude if having ability in forms potential is general, for example in general intellectual. Be said to be special aptitude if ability in form special potential, for example in academic aptitude, as in English.
Interest is someone awareness, heart tendency to an object, situation relates with his desirability, requirement and relate with psychological condition. According to Sadiman (1990) interest defined as a condition that happen if someone sees characteristic or meaning while situation correlated with desirability or requirements himself. Therefore what someone see of course will his intrigue as far as what is seen has correlation with his important. There is Correlation with English lesson if the student high interest, so he will follow English lesson assuredly and the result reached can be optimal.
a. Intelligence Factor
According to Witherington (Pasaribu, 1983), intelligence predicate more appropriate if called as smart behavior. So, intelligences not collection of understanding, collection indicate smart matters. Intelligence measurement result can be explained by using numeral shows intelligence ratio known as IQ (intelligence quotient). Intelligence are affecting to English achievement of students, because students with high intelligence will show high English achievement.
b. Motivation Factor.
Motivation can be stimulated not only from external factor but also motivation that appear from someone self (Sardiman, 1990). When the students have high motivation to learn English, their achievement in English also will be high. The motivation to learn English can come from environment and also the motivation that come from students self to learn English.
While according to Brown (1987) internal factors include are: motivation attitude, risk taking and extroversion. A student with high motivation will make some effort to achieve his purposes. Good attitude contributes the success of the student, like attitude towards the teacher and target language. Furthermore Brown (1987) states the risk taking is an important characteristic of successful learning language. A student also should take a risk from his unawareness to be successful in learning English. Finally, an extroverted student should often participate actually in English class discussion.
External factors are factors come from outside students’ selves can affect learning achievement. External factors include of: environment and instrumental factors. Environment factors cover of (a) natural environment is nature condition can affect learning achievement (b) social environment is environment either human being form or another form that can affect learning achievement.
Whereas for other external factors are instrumental factors, instrumental factors are factors that is existence and using is planed appropriate with study result hoped. These factors can manipulate to reach aim of study that has planned. Instrumental factors include are: (a) curriculum; school’s curriculum that is not stable, often there are alterations disturb students’ learning process, especially student that affect rule alteration curriculum. Clear and stable curriculum enable the students can learn best. (b) Infrastructure; building condition or students learning place include: lightning, ventilation, and seating can affect students’ achievement in English. Complete learning equipment, sufficient library are supporting factor to student’s achievement in learning English. (c) Teacher. Completeness of teacher’s total, and quality of teacher will affect to student achievement in learning English. In addition the way of teacher evaluating will affect to English achievement of students. In teaching learning process, teacher is important component to students’ achievement, especially in classical teaching system.