Forms of Parents’ Support
According to Sarafino 1998, there are four forms of parents’ support. Those are: Emotional support-Emotional support includes empathy, protection, attention and sense of believe toward individual and transparent of problem solving. Instrumental support-Instrumental support is providing medium that can facilitate in reaching the goal includes material, equipment, services or times and opportunities. Informational support-Informational support includes of advice, guidance, opinion, and consideration how someone should act. Appraisal support-Appraisal support is rewarding towards effort, achievement gained and giving reinforcement about the result achieved.
Student’s Self Management
In Learning Dembo (2004) states management is a key word to describe a student's success. Self-management is a factor that affects the learning process. It builds optimal conditions for learning and discards the bad influences in learning. Academic self-management is a strategy used by the student to control the factors that hinder learning. Uno (2005) states that self management is student’s responsible behavior toward their own behavior management in order to make student can learn independently and able to predict their future. Self management includes of three main points, they are determining the goal, monitoring and evaluating the progress, and giving reinforcements. Self-management is defined as an attempt of the individual to control his behavior (Millis in Gerhardt, 2006). More specifically, Self-Management includes problem solving, goal setting, observe the time and environmental problems that could hinder in achieving goals and using reinforcement and punishment to achieve that goal (Frayne in Gerhardt, 2006). According to Primardi (2006) self-management is when someone does a particular behavior at a certain time, to control another behavior (target behavior) in the future. Garrison in Fattah (2010) adds that self-management related to control task issues that include how to achieve learning objectives and how to organize the results and support of the study. According to the references and understanding above, it can be concluded that academic self-management strategies in education is something that is used by the students to be able to control the way of learning due to prevent and remove inhibiting factors in learning.